Tarlau, R. 2015. How do new critical pedagogies develop? Educational innovation, social change, and landless workers in Brazil. Teachers College Record 117.11: 1-36.
This article provides insights into the process of grassroots educational innovation,
illustrating that communities draw on a diverse set of educational theories that resonate
with local practices and beliefs to develop alternative proposals for their schools. The article
also suggests that certain questions arise about the purpose of public education when social
movements with particular visions of societal transformation demand participation in the
public school sphere. The article argues that this social movement participation is appropriate
if activists can mobilize parents, students, teachers, and other community members to implement
this vision through a collective process of participatory governance.